Download Refractories for Aluminium: Electrolysis and the Cast House by Andrey Yurkov PDF

By Andrey Yurkov

This e-book info the peculiarities of the necessities for refractories designed for aluminium metallurgical technique: aid, forged apartment, and anode construction. the writer describes necessities particular to the houses and constitution of refractory fabrics that differentiate it from the refractories for ferrous metallurgy and different refractories. A comparability is drawn among the houses and constitution of refractories and carbon cathode fabrics from various issues of view: from the purpose of actual chemistry and chemistry interactions in the course of the metallurgical technique and from the purpose of layout of aid pots and furnaces with the point to the provider lifestyles time of metallurgical aggregates.

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Extra resources for Refractories for Aluminium: Electrolysis and the Cast House

Sample text

Another method is the interferometry method according to ASTM E 289-99 [108]. It gives an accuracy of 4 Â 10À8 КÀ1, which is one order of magnitude more precise compared to measurement by dilatometer according to ASTM E831-93 [103]. In the Al industry, it is necessary to take into account the thermal expansion of refractories in the bottom part of holding and melting furnaces in the cast house and in anode baking furnaces. The thermal expansion of carbon cathode is relatively small; however, it might be sufficient to take it into account.

Allard et al. 5 for anthracitic graphitic blocks, with a tendency to decrease in the case of graphitic materials. Practical considerations and experience tell us that in the metallurgy of Al, refractories are subjected to chemical wear, abrasion, and chemical attack, but they rarely go out of service because of cracking due to overloading. From a scientific point of view, the investigation of refractory brittleness is interesting [71], yet in industrial practice, people are usually satisfied with characteristics such as compression, flexural strength, elastic modulus, and abrasion resistance.

In such cases, materials usually do not crack. Porosity diminishes the probability of microcracking. – If the material has no ability to expand. – If, during thermal cycling, a big temperature gradient takes place in the material: The expansion of one zone of the material will not coincide with the expansion in another zone, and that may lead to cracking. The higher the value of thermal conductivity and the lower the value of thermal expansion, the better thermal shock resistance such a material will have.

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