By Vicky Randall
This moment version has been elevated to incorporate discussions of the overseas debt predicament, the influence of globalization at the postcolonial global, the increase of newly industrialized nations, and the upsurge in religion-based clash within the post–Cold warfare period. Describing the strengths and weaknesses of the prevailing interpretive techniques to those matters, the authors discover the usually tricky courting among political swap and monetary improvement. whilst they supply a finished view into the turbulent politics of the 3rd international and recommend how destiny research can construct on current techniques to mirror political truth extra fully.
An crucial textual content for college students of political technology and 3rd international societies, this quantity also will curiosity an individual looking a clearer realizing of the present matters underlying the politics of those countries.
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Extra resources for Political Change and Underdevelopment: A Critical Introduction to Third World Politics
Modernisation, according to this view, entails the shedding of 'tradition'. By way of criticism, a wide range of studies has attempted to show that not only may traditional institutions adapt to and co-exist with modern institutions, specifically the nation-state and its trappings, but, in addition, the process of modernisation may actually revitalise dormant traditional institutions and practices. That is, as Bendix (1967) has said, modernisation, through for instance modern medicine or increased literacy, may not lead to 'modernity'.
With the arrival of the fifth stage, the 'age of mass consumption', leading sectors of the economy shift into the manufacture of consumer durables and the provision of services. This stage can only be reached when real income per head has risen to a point at which the consumption needs of a large section of the population have moved beyond basic food, shelter and clothing. At the time of writing (in the 1950s), it could only be found in the US, western European societies and Japan. The crucial point in Rostow's analysis is that, although for the non-industrialised world the initial stimulus to modernisation arrives from outside through the example set by the industrialised countries, the basic problem of taking off is totally internal to the economies concerned.
We have some sympathy, however, with Holden's suggestion that most people are agreed, in a rough and ready way, about what they mean by democracy ('government of the people, by the people, for the people'), but not about the means necessary to achieve it (Holden, 1993). In the context of the democratisation debate, a distinction is often drawn between more 'procedural' or limited conceptions of democracy, which emphasise elections, party competition and so forth, as put forward by writers like Huntington, and 'substantial' conceptions that require extensive and meaningful political participation, which may in turn be seen to require significant economic redistribution and social reform (for instance, Anglade, 1994; Cammack, 1991; and Gills and Rocamora, 1992).