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38). Chapter 3 of The Foundation s ofKno wing uses an elaboration ofthese ideas to defend a view of knowledge as justified true belie f in the face of 'G ettier ' count erexampl es suggesting that such a belief may fail to be knowl edge becaus e its truth and the basis of its justification for the believer in question are irrelevant to each other (cf. chapter 10 of the third edition (1989) of Theory ofKnowledge). All this forms partofthe foundationalism, in the general tradition of Chisholm Descartes, to which Chisholm adheres (Foundations, chapter I ; cf.

Schilpp, P. A. ) (1963) The Philo sophy ofRudolf Carnap , La Salle: Open Court. Carnap, Rudolf German. b: 18 May 1891, Ronsdorf (Wupperta l), Germany. d: 1970. Cat: Logician. Ints: Logic ; semantics ; philosophy of science ; epistemology. E duc: University of Freiburg; University of lena, PhD 1921; Harvard University, ScD(Hons) 1936. Infls: Kant , Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein. Appts: Professor of Natural Philosophy, German University, Prague , 193 1- 5; Professor of Philosophy, University of Chicago , 1936- 52; subsequently Professor, University of California, Los Ange les from 1954-62; Visiting Professor, Harvard, 1941-2 .

However, unlike Kant (but like some of his own neo -Kantian predecessors), he rejected the idea that the concepts and principles that make our experience possible are the static and forev er fixed furniture of the human mind . He claimed that these concepts and principles constantly develop . Altho ugh one may speak of a 'natural symbolism ' that characterizes all human consciousness, it can tak e many different forms . His philosophy started from the presupposition that , ifthere is a definition ofthe natur e or 'essence' of human beings , it can onl y be functional.

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