By Bar-Giora Goldberg

· In-depth insurance of contemporary electronic implementations of frequency synthesis architectures

· a variety of layout examples drawn from real engineering projects

· The accompanying CD contains electronic frequency synthesis layout instruments and an digital model of the book

Digital frequency synthesis is utilized in smooth instant and communications applied sciences akin to radar, mobile telephony, satellite tv for pc communications, digital imaging, and spectroscopy. this is often ebook is a finished review of electronic frequency synthesis idea and functions, with a selected emphasis at the most modern techniques utilizing fractional-N phase-locked loop know-how. The layout instruments within the accompany CD let readers to paintings in the course of the examples during this e-book for a pragmatic simulation of tangible layout utilizing electronic frequency synthesis.

· In-depth insurance of recent electronic implementations of frequency synthesis architectures

· Numerous layout examples drawn from genuine engineering projects

· The accompanying CD contains electronic frequency synthesis layout instruments and an digital model of the booklet

**Read Online or Download Digital frequency synthesis demystified. DDS and fractional-N PLLs PDF**

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**Extra resources for Digital frequency synthesis demystified. DDS and fractional-N PLLs**

**Example text**

1-16. Frequency is changed by changing the value of W, which is the basic function of the direct digital synthesizer. Because of the nature of DDS, phase continuous switching is simple to achieve. Note also that dc FM is possible in DDS. Sometimes when dc FM is required from a PLL system, it is done by locking the PLL to a direct digital synthesizer, and it is FM-modulated. The phase is changed by inserting an adder between the accumulator and the ROM, and this function is shown in Fig. 1-17. Adding (or subtracting) a number causes a phase shift.

We can therefore conclude that for m<<1 (we Frequency Synthesizer System Analysis 45 Figure 2-2 Bessel functions. always assume that the noise is low, and in synthesizers this is always a relevant assumption), phase jitter2 in radians is equal to the total sidebands energy (relative to the signal’s total power)! Therefore, for φj given in radians, 2 φj = ∑P (2-15) i where Pi is the discrete sidebands power. Without any loss of generalization, we can infer that in the case of random noise, where the phase is not just a single sinewave (modulating the signal phase), but rather distributed noise, the same is correct, and we can replace the discrete representation with a continuous one.

Accordingly, for a phase step i, the final value of the error is given by ∫ +∞ −∞ x( t) ϭ lim sX(s) sϭ 0 (1-22) where X(s) is the Laplace transform of x(t) and is therefore in this case si lim ᎏ ϭ 0 s=0 s ϩ K (1-23) Thus a phase shift in the input will be tracked by the output. However, a phase ramp, or a frequency error d, yields d d lim ϭ s=0 s ϩ K K (1-24) Thus a first-order loop when one is tracking a phase ramp (frequency change) will generate a fixed phase error, proportional to d and K.