By Douglas L. Dorset
Through contemplating the cast kingdom packing of linear chain wax parts, this ebook goals at figuring out 3 issues: to start with, which adjustments of molecular parts are allowed for holding strong reliable options; secondly, what occurs while balance stipulations are traversed and fractionation starts off and thirdly, the constitution of fractionated arrays. The co-compatibility of molecular constituents is taken into account by way of their shapes and relative sizes, following an procedure initially proposed through Kitaigorodskii. As proven profusely by means of the crystal buildings of natural part kinds (e. g. alkanes, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, lengthy chain esters, cholesteryl esters) and insertion of sensible teams (e. g. chain branches, unsaturation, heteroatoms), attribute molecular packing arrays offer vital geometric info for figuring out the co-packing of alternative molecules in combinations. unmarried crystal and spectroscopic information from polydisperse arrays can then be evaluated to reach at believable buildings of sturdy recommendations and fractionated platforms. the ensuing constructions are usually not simply appropriate to the certainty of so-called waxes but additionally comprise definite periods of polymers. The ramifications of this paintings expand into any strong kingdom array of polymethylene chains, together with lipid foodstuffs.
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Extra info for Crystallography of the Polymethylene Chain: An Inquiry into the Structure of Waxes (International Union of Crystallography Monographs on Crystallography)
However, if the whole multicomponent chain assembly has been deposited onto the grid surface, and adequate care has been taken to stabilize shorter chain components that they may not volatilize under high vacuum, it is difﬁcult to imagine why single crystal structural information should be inferior to the admitted limitations of powder diffraction measurements. Again, the primary distinction to be made between the techniques is that powder X-ray diffraction is a bulk measurement whereas electron diffraction probes local environments.
9. (a) Single layer of orthorhombic n-hexatriacontane, bright-ﬁeld electron micrograph revealing bend contours. The lateral crystal dimension is approximately 10 m; (b) highresolution lattice image of n-hexatriacontane layer revealing chain positions. , and Dorset, D. L. (1985) Molecular resolution electron micrographs of monolamellar parafﬁn crystals. 84 Å. ) This polymorph is equivalent to the so-called “Op” structure cited by Rajabalee et al. (1999b). The layer habit of this polymorph can be readily observed from low magniﬁcation electron micrographs of monolayer crystals (Fig.
Upon annealing the solid in the presence of the substrate, a nascent lamellar structure emerged (Fig. 13) and, eventually, after observing a number of intermediate patterns, those from the well-formed lamellae were observed. Model calculations indicate that the initial nucleation, by analogy to mesophases, must have been a “nematically” disordered packing of the long chains, however with a highly ordered methylene subcell packing (Fig. 13). ” During annealing, allowing the chains to reptate toward a ﬁnal, stable, lamellar form, intermediates would be found where bridging molecules across the nascent lamellae would constrain the gap to some integral multiple of the cs/2 spacing of the O⊥ subcell.