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By E. J. W. Whittaker

Ranging from the elemental beneficial properties of crystal morphology and symmetry with out assuming that the reader is familiar with something approximately crystals this textbook exhibits how they supply an perception into the best way crystals are in keeping with a repeating development of atoms. After summarizing and evaluating the most good points of the seven crystal platforms and thirty-two crystal sessions, the publication is going directly to deal with X-ray crystallography in adequate element to supply an figuring out of its makes use of in identity and in textural and structural experiences, and to narrate it to chose zone electron diffraction tools within the electron microscope. hence the scholar is delivered to a degree the place he can comprehend the importance of crystallographic paintings, and has a radical historical past if he needs to maneuver directly to extra professional works. difficulties and solutions are incorporated

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Additional info for Crystallography. An Introduction for Earth Science (and other Solid State) Students

Sample text

B) Stereographic projection of a small circle of radius Θ around P. point F opposite to it (its "antipodes"), the problem is solved by finding p', the projection of P'. 7(a) shows a vertical section of the sphere through P, which therefore also contains F. If P and F are joined to the south pole the positions of p and p' are found along the diameter of the primitive through p. On transferring these positions to the stereographic projection in Fig. 7(b) the construction can be completed; the centre of the required circle must be equidistant from p and p' and so lies on the perpendicular bisector of the line pp'.

8(b) are all related to one another by the symmetry, and since they are the only faces on the crystal which they bound they are clearly capable of enclosing a space. However, a closed form may co-exist on a crystal with other forms. The crystal in Fig. 8(a) possesses faces corresponding to those of Fig. 8(b) which are therefore clearly capable of enclosing a space although they do not happen to do so in Fig. 8(a) because of the presence of other faces as well. An open form, on the other hand, is incapable in any circumstances of enclosing a space on its own.

When the angles between them have been measured, the pole of one of them is arbitrarily placed on the zero meridian, and then the others can all be positioned at the appropriate angles of longitude round the equator. The pole of any other face such as P can be positioned on the sphere if the interfacial angles are measured from P to two of the faces already plotted, say B and C. If the angle between P C IESS - D 38 Crystallqgraphy for Earth Science Students and B is 0, then the pole of P must lie on a small circle of radius Θ around the pole of B.

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