By A. Mersmann
This guide seeks to facilitate the choice, layout and operation of large-scale business crystallizers that technique crystals with the correct dimension distribution, form and purity sought - together with cooling, evaporation, drowning-out response, soften, and comparable crystallization concepts. This re-creation deals new effects on direct-contact cooling crystallization. It lists the houses of over one hundred seventy natural and inorganic crystallization platforms.
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Extra info for Crystallization Technology Handbook, Second Edition,
The hardness of a solid is considered to be its resistance to local plastic deformation, which may be caused by the indentation of a Vickers pyramid. Dividing the load applied by the area of the indentation formed gives the Vickers hardness: HV ¼ 1:854 F d1 d2 ð7:2Þ Here, F is the force applied and d1 and d2 are the two diagonals of the plastic indentation. 854 results from the geometry of the indenter, which is a pyramid having an included angle of 1368. When the change in geometry of the indentation during unloading is neglected, the hardness is equivalent to the contact pressure during loading.
Under these conditions, embryos can only grow or shrink as a result of single-molecule events, which can be described by the rate constants kA and kD . The value kA is the rate constant of addition and kD that of decay of units from a cluster. Because addition is a random process—if supersaturation is sufﬁciently high—more and more elementary units can join together and create increasingly large nuclei known as clusters. The reversible work necessary to form such a cluster is given by a balance of the free enthalpy ÁGV , that is gained (being proportional to the condensed matter and, thus, to the volume of the cluster) and the free-surface enthalpy ÁGA needed to build the new surface.
Franke, U¨ber den Einﬂuss der Prozessparameter auf die Fa¨llungskristallisation am Beispiel von Calciumcarbonat und Calcium sulfat Dihydrat, Thesis, TU Mu¨nchen, 1994. 1] J. Mullin, Crystallization, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1993). 2] U. Zacher, Die Kristallwachstumsdispersion in einem kontinuierlichen Suspensionskristallisator, Thesis, TU Mu¨nchen (1995). 1] A. Reuss, Berechnung der Fliebgrenze von Mischkristallen auf Grund der Plastizita¨tsbedingung fu¨r Einkristalle, Z. Angew. Math. , 9: 49 (1929).