By Francisco J. M. Mojica, Roger A. Garrett (auth.), Rodolphe Barrangou, John van der Oost (eds.)
CRISPR/Cas is a lately defined safeguard approach that protects micro organism and archaea opposed to invasion through cellular genetic parts similar to viruses and plasmids. a large spectrum of special CRISPR/Cas platforms has been pointed out in a minimum of 1/2 the on hand prokaryotic genomes. On-going structural and practical analyses have ended in a much better perception into the capabilities and attainable functions of those structures, even though many secrets and techniques stay to be came upon.
In this e-book, specialists summarize the state-of-the-art during this fascinating field.
Read Online or Download CRISPR-Cas Systems: RNA-mediated Adaptive Immunity in Bacteria and Archaea PDF
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Additional resources for CRISPR-Cas Systems: RNA-mediated Adaptive Immunity in Bacteria and Archaea
Mol Microbiol 36:244–246 Mojica FJM, Díez-Villaseñor C, García-Martínez J, Soria E (2005) Intervening sequences of regularly spaced prokaryotic repeats derive from foreign genetic elements. J Mol Evol 60:174–182 Mojica FJM, Díez-Villaseñor C, García-Martínez J, Almendros C (2009) Short motif sequences determine the targets of the prokaryotic CRISPR defence system. Microbiol 155:733–740 Nakata A, Amemura M, Makino K (1989) Unusual nucleotide arrangement with repeated sequences in the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome.
Microbiol 151:653–663 Pul U, Wurm R, Arslan Z, Geissen R, Hofmann N, Wagner R (2010) Identification and characterization of E. coli CRISPR-cas promoters and their silencing by H-NS. Mol Microbiol 75:1495–1512 Riehle MM, Bennett AF, Long AD (2001) Genetic architecture of thermal adaptation in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:525–530 Rousseau C, Nicolas J, Gonnet M (2009) CRISPI: a CRISPR interactive database. Bioinformatics 25:3317–3318 Sapranauskas R, Gasiunas G, Fremaux C, Barrangou R, Horvath P, Siksnys V (2011) The Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR/Cas system provides immunity in Escherichia coli.
The fact that spacers are added sequentially at the leader end and that a given spacer is rarely acquired twice or duplicated are key elements for building hierarchical relationships between strains. Presence/absence of a given CRISPR locus and variability in the number of direct repeats and spacers in that locus between strains have been frequently reported, providing in some cases phylogenic information, but this polymorphism was extensively used for genotyping in only a few instances. The observation that not all strains possess a CRISPR locus in a given species precludes its use as a general typing tool.