By R.F. Craig
Now in its 8th version, this article keeps to combination readability of rationalization with intensity of assurance to provide scholars with the elemental rules of soil mechanics. From the principles of the topic via to its software in perform, the publication presents an essential better half to undergraduate classes.
Basic features of Soils Seepage potent tension Consolidation Soil Behaviour in Shear floor research In-Situ checking out Shallow Foundations Deep Foundations complicated starting place themes protecting buildings balance of Self-Supporting Soil lots Illustrative situations
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Extra info for Craig's soil mechanics
In general, coarse soils can be compacted to higher dry densities than fine soils. Field compaction The results of laboratory compaction tests are not directly applicable to field compaction because the compactive efforts in the laboratory tests are different, and are applied in a different way, from those produced by field equipment. 5 mm. 5-kg rammers cover the range of dry density normally produced by field compaction equipment. A minimum number of passes must be made with the chosen compaction equipment to produce the required value of dry density.
IP is approximately equal to the clay fraction. 25 are considered active. e. greater swelling when wetted and greater shrinkage when drying). g. containing a significant amount of montmorillonite) can therefore be particularly damaging to geotechnical works. 10 Consistency limits for fine soils. e. surface area per unit mass), as this governs the amount of adsorbed water. The transition between the semi-solid and solid states occurs at the shrinkage limit, defined as the water content at which the volume of the soil reaches its lowest value as it dries out.
These standards all relate to the same basic tests which are described below. The soil sample is dried sufficiently to enable it to be crumbled and broken up, using a mortar and a rubber pestle, without crushing individual particles; only material passing a 425-μm sieve is typically used in the tests. The apparatus for the liquid limit test consists of a penetrometer (or ‘fall-cone’) fitted with a 30° cone of stainless steel, 35 mm long: the cone and the sliding shaft to which it is attached have a mass of 80 g.