Download Conquering Gotham: Building Penn Station and Its Tunnels by Jill Jonnes PDF

By Jill Jonnes

"Superb. [A] best narrative" (The Wall highway Journal ) concerning the arguable building of latest York's loved unique Penn Station and its tunnels.

As bestselling books like Ron Chernow's Titan and David McCullough's The nice Bridge verify, readers are excited about the grand personalities and schemes that populated manhattan on the shut of the 19th century. Conquering Gotham re- creates the riveting fight waged via the good Pennsylvania Railroad to construct Penn Station and the enormous approach of tunnels that might attach water-bound long island to the remainder of the continent by means of rail. Historian Jill Jonnes tells a lovely story of snarling plutocrats, engineering feats, and backroom politicking filled with the main colourful figures of Gilded Age long island.

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Extra info for Conquering Gotham: Building Penn Station and Its Tunnels

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16 is a private fountain accessible only from the Temple of the Condor. We conducted detailed field instrument surveys, hydraulic flow tests, measurements of the fountain structures, and measurements of channel and outlet sizes. 5 inches) in diameter measured in the basin of Fountain No. 4 limited the maximum fountain system flow capacity to 100 liters (26 gallons) per minute. However, the individual fountains were designed to operate optimally with a flow of about 25 liters (7 gallons) per minute to fill the aryballo, the common Inca water jug.

However, they most certainly had to carefully identify the specific dry-weather flow locations and tap into the seep areas to concentrate the flow at discrete points to support the fountain flows. As proof on the Inca;s engineering skills, we were able to make the fountains flow again, even after 450 years of abandonment (Figure 3-11). After the fountains were excavated and the site cleaned up, one of the Quechua Indians in the excavation crew, Florencio Almiro Duefias, called the Wright Water Engineers team together for a traditional Inca thanksgiving prayer.

The vertical drop between Fountain No. 1 and Fountain No. 16 is approximately 26 meters (85 feet). Except for Fountain No. 16, each of the fountains can be reached via common stairways and walkways. Fountain No. 16 is a private fountain accessible only from the Temple of the Condor. We conducted detailed field instrument surveys, hydraulic flow tests, measurements of the fountain structures, and measurements of channel and outlet sizes. 5 inches) in diameter measured in the basin of Fountain No.

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