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By Li-hsiang Lisa Rosenlee

Demanding situations authorised ideals that Confucianism is a explanation for women’s oppression and explores Confucianism as a moral process appropriate with gender parity.

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42 But, in the Song Ru’s rhetoric, both Daoism and Buddhism were heterodox doctrines since the former taught deception and the latter severed one’s familial ties. In Song Ru’s Daoxue, not just non-Ru teachings were viewed as unorthodox, early Ru learning such as Han Ru and Tang Ru were also omitted in Song’s genealogy of the Dao. In the Song Ru’s construction, the orthodox Ru learning that embodied the way of the ancient sage-kings was supposedly transmitted from Confucius and his prominent disciples (excluding Xunzi since two of his disciples were later classified as legalist) directly to the Daoxue of Song Ru.

58 Through promoting the culture of wen under the Jurchen rule, Ru learning was able to reproduce itself politically, socially, and culturally, and the rise CONFUCIANISM, CHINESE-NESS, AND REN VIRTUOUS PERSONHOOD 31 of Ru’s status in these three arenas in turn gave moral legitimacy to the Jurchen ruling house. , wen), which was indispensable to the moral legitimacy of the state. ”59 In contrast, the Mongols who explicitly rejected Ru learning as a “Han method” also rejected the culture of wen, the civil ideal of the ancients.

83 Hence, any attempt to understand Confucianism with Confucius as its most prominent spokesperson must begin with the distinctive “Confucian,” ethical concept of ren, which by the time of Mencius (371–289 BCE) had become synonymous with the concept of person. To begin with, in the Confucian concept of person or ren* 人 there is no assumed coincidence of the concept of humanity with the male self with which things that are ideal are associated. The dichotomy of male rational intellect and female unconstrained emotion is a common assumption in contemporary feminist critiques of the Western canons.

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