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By C. W. Bunn

Textual content extracted from establishing pages of publication: CHEMICAL CBYSTALLOGRAPHY AN. creation TO OPTICAL AND X-RAY equipment by way of C. W. BUNN OXFORD on the CLARENDON PRESS Oxford collage Press, Amen condo, London E. G. four GLASGOW big apple TORONTO MELBOURNE WELLINGTON BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS CAPETOWN Geoffrey Cumberlege, writer to the collage FIRST released 1045 REPRINTED WITH CORRECTIONS 1946 Reprinted lithographically in nice Britain on the collage PRESS, OXFORD, 1948, 1949, 1952, from corrected sheets of the second one effect PREFACE CEYSTALLOGRAPHIC tools are utilized in chemistry for 2 major pur poses the identity of stable elements, and the choice of atomic configurations ; there also are different purposes, such a lot of which, so far as strategy is worried, may well* be acknowledged to lie among the 2 major topics. This baok is meant to be a advisor to those equipment. i've got attempted to give an explanation for the common rules concerned, and to offer as a lot functional info as will allow the reader to begin utilizing the equipment defined. i haven't tried to provide a rigorous deal with ment of the actual rules: the f procedure is continually from the chemist's perspective, and actual conception is incorporated simply in as far as it is crucial for the final comprehension of the rules and techniques defined. Nor have i tried to offer an exhaustive account of any topic ; the purpose all through has been to put the founda tions, and to offer adequate references ( both to bigger works or to unique papers) to permit the reader to stick to up any topic in larger aspect if he so wants. The therapy of definite topics could be a little unorthodox. Crystal morphology, for example, is defined when it comes to the concept that of the unit telephone ( instead of when it comes to the axial ratios of the sooner morphologists), and is approached when it comes to the phenomena of crystal progress. The optical homes of crystals are defined exclusively when it comes to the phenomena saw within the polarizing microscope. X-ray diffrac tion is taken into account first in connexion with powder photos; it's moj* e traditional to begin with the translation of the diffraction results of unmarried crystals. those tools of therapy are dictated by way of the shape and scope of the e-book ; additionally they replicate the process the writer's personal event in employing crystallographic the way to chemical difficulties. it's hence was hoping that they might at any price appear normal to these to whom the booklet is addressed - scholars of chemistry who desire to gather a few wisdom of crystallographic equipment, and examine employees who desire to make sensible use of such equipment. If the e-book should still come to the attention of a extra philosophical reader, i will purely desire that any qualms this kind of reader may perhaps consider approximately its avoidance of formal actual or mathematical therapy might be a bit of offset by means of the curiosity of a singular, if fairly significantly functional, standpoint. The problems of three-d considering have, i am hoping, been lightened up to attainable through the supply of a giant variety of vi PREFACE diagrams ; yet crystallography is emphatically no longer a subject matter that are learnt completely from books: stable types could be used freely types of crystal shapes, of atomic . nd molecular configurations, of reciprocal lattices and of vectorial representations of optical and different actual houses. many of the diagrams are unique, yet a couple of were reproduced, via permission, from released books and journals: Figs. 197, 207-9, 215, and 222 from the magazine of the Chemical Society ; Figs. 199, 203, and 217 from the lawsuits of the Royal Society, Figs. 102-4 from the magazine of medical tools ; Fig. 229 from the magazine of the yank Chemical Society, Fig. 161 from Inter nationale Tabetten ftir Bestimmung von Kristallstrukturen ( Berlin: Born traeger); Fig. 192 from the * Strnkturbericht ' of the Zeitschrift fttr Kristallographie\ and Figs. 212 and 216 from Bragg's The Crystalline kingdom

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Example text

A correction should be made in the ratio for the condensed state to allow for the fact that the individual components and the compound to be deposited have in general different condensation coefficients depending on their adsorption energies on a given substrate. The coefficients influence the probability of mutual collisions of the individual particles on the substrate and hence the formation of the desired molecules. Best results are achieved when the adsorption energy of the desired compound AB is higher than those of both components A and B.

Further, to form the films with defined and reproducible electrical and other parameters, the surface of the substrate should be flat and smooth. These characteristics should be accompanied by a number of practical requirements, such as the possibility of vacuum processing and the avail- 39 ability and price of the material. In some applications, even its weight may be an important factor. Absence of contamination is, however, necessary in all cases. It is, in general, possible to say that there is no material that would satisfy all these requirements.

The interference phenomenon of the transmitted light is complementary to that of the reflected light. g. the lens of a human eye; the pattern may therefore be observed directly. The equations are easily confirmed by experiment as far as reflected light is concerned. 5), the interference pattern is not observed in practice because the intensity of the transmitted (refracted) wave is much greater than that of the reflected one (the intensities of multiply reflected waves are still lower). Hence interference phenomena cause only small relative variations in the intensity that the eye cannot easily distinguish.

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