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Significatum', 'designatum' and 'denotatum' are elements in the semiotic triangle (Fig. 1 ) , bound together in the relation of cation. signifi- In ethnosemantics, signification is given a strictly referen­ tial interpretation by way of the sign 'lexeme'. Moreover, reference itself is restricted to denotation (Lyons 1963:4; Hymes 1970b:111). Ethnosemantic results consist of the mapping of lexemes on significata. The mappings take the form of semantical rules, such as the one propos­ ed for 'mother' in Chapter Three.

In­ deed, understanding "is not one thing; it is as various as the lan­ guage games themselves are". So says Wittgenstein in the Brown Book (Rhees 1969:VII), and echoing him, Not a method of understanding, but immensely various methods of understanding are the professional sociologist's proper and hith­ erto unstudied and critical phenomena. Their multitude is indicat­ ed in the endless list of ways that persons speak ["ironically,... metaphorically,... cryptically,... narratively,... in a question­ ing  answering way,...

But, as is being argued, one step back is no step anywhere. There is no solution in this direction. Recommendations to secure more in­ formation on the situation or setting are beset with the same problem (Handel 1969:10; Garfinkel and Sacks 1970:338). In this light, then, trying out the knowledge [that is, the ethnosemantic results] ... in 'real', non-interview situations ... [on the assumption that] ... 5; cf. 3) will only raise the question of the contextualization of those (noninterview) events (Garfinkel 1967:6).

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