By Herman M. Kalckar, Donna B. Ullrey (auth.), Michael J. Morgan (eds.)
It could be visible to any scholar of Biology that the invention of chemical methods in complete organisms has frequently preceded the elucidation of the compo nent steps. even though, it truly is possibly much less seen that the unravelling of the se quences within which these chemical steps happen in dwelling subject, of the ideal mechanisms concerned, and of the way within which they're regulated, might were completed neither via the examine of intact vegetation and animals nor even of extracts derived from them. Our skill to appreciate the character and rules of metabolism rests on major premises: the idea that lifestyles strategies can certainly be validly investigated with person cells and cell-free extracts, and the thesis that there's an important "unity in biochemistry" (as Kluyver positioned it, 60 years in the past) that allows occasions in a single organism to be legitimately studied in one other. Of specific software during this latter recognize has been using cultures of single-celled organisms, starting to be in outlined media-especially prokaryotes, equivalent to Escherichia coli, and eukaryotes, reminiscent of Neurospora and Sac charomyces sp. , to which either biochemical and genetical innovations might be utilized. It used to be, in fact, Pasteur's observations of bacterial fermentations that first overthrew the assumption that oxygen was once crucial for all energy-yielding professional cesses: his acceptance that "La fermentation . . . . . c' est l. a. vie sans air" laid the rules of our wisdom of glycolysis.
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Additional resources for Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cultured Cells
1982). For example, many types of downregulation, such as metabolically mediated transport curbs, may look like plain inhibitions. , 1982). HEXOSE TRANSPORT INTO CULTURED FIBROBLASTS 17 Table IV. 92 "NIL cells were grown to near-confluence in standard DME medium with 10% calf serum. The cultures were then rinsed twice. and maintained for 20 hr in modified DME without serum and with or without glutamine and additions as indicated. 1 % DMSO. They were then rinsed twice with PBS and assayed for galactose uptake: [U- 14C]galactose.
A significant decrease in sugar concentration occurred in the medium of cells incubated with glucose, mannose, or fructose, but not in the case of L-glucose, galactose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, sucrose, lactose, or raffinose. 6). Harris and Kutsky raised the interesting possibility of adaptive changes in the carbohydrate requirements of cell populations. They were unable to find any adaptive shifts in the presence of the inert sugars they tested, although they did detect alterations in cell morphology.
Lee, S. , 1978, Glucose binding and transport proteins extracted from fastgrown chicken fibroblasts, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:5427-5431. Leloir, L. , 1951, The metabolism of hexosephosphate, in: Phosphorus Metabolism (W. D. McElroy and B. ), Vol. I, pp. 69-93, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore. Lever, J. , 1976, Regulation of amino acid and glucose transport activity expressed in isolated membranes from untransformed and SV40-transformed mouse fibroblasts, J. Cell. Physiol. 89:779-788. , and Lee, S.