Download Cambridge Ancient History. Early History of the Middle East by I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond PDF

By I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond

Half II of quantity I offers with the historical past of the close to East from approximately 3000 to 1750 B.C. In Egypt, an extended interval of political unification and balance enabled the kings of the outdated nation to increase and make the most average assets, to mobilize either the manpower and the technical ability to construct the pyramids, and to inspire sculptors within the construction of works of superlative caliber. After a interval of anarchy and civil warfare on the finish of the 6th Dynasty the neighborhood rulers of Thebes confirmed the so-called heart nation, restoring an age of political calm during which the humanities might back flourish. In Western Asia, Babylonia used to be the most centre and resource of civilisation, and her ethical, although now not constantly her army, hegemony was once famous and authorized by means of the encircling nations of Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Assyria and Elam. The heritage of the sector is traced from the past due Uruk and Jamdat Nasr sessions as much as the increase of Hammurabi, the main major advancements being the discovery of writing within the Uruk interval, the emergence of the Semites as a political issue below Sargon, and the luck of the centralized forms less than the 3rd Dynasty of Ur.

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A king-list, formerly on the wall of a Nineteenth Dynasty tomb in the Memphite cemetery of Saqqara and now preserved in the Cairo Museum,4 begins with the name of Anedjib, which may mean that the priestly owner of the tomb wished to attribute the foundation of Memphis to the sixth king of the First Dynasty, but no 1 3 See above, p. 7. Book 1, 50. 2 4 Book 11, 99. See below, pp. 52-3. G, 15, pi. 1; G, 27, pi. 1. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 16 THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD IN EGYPT other evidence supports this assumption.

G, 6, 410-14; §vm, 17, vol. 1, 52-5. 7 §111, 6, 566-70; §111, 7; §vn, 26, 41, n. 73. For a reconsideration of this problem see A, 9 and 10. 6 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 18 THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD IN EGYPT ascribed each to a particular royal owner, not only by mud sealings and other inscribed objects but, in the case of Narmer, Djer, Djet, Den, Mer(it)neith, Semerkhet, Qaa and Peribsen, by stelae bearing their names which stood in pairs, one pair outside each' tomb' -1 Although no stelae were recovered from the 'tombs' of Aha, Anedjib and Khasekhemwy, there is no reason to doubt that they were originally provided with them.

1, 56. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 22 THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD IN EGYPT early period Abydos was regarded with particular reverence. In later times, when it had become the centre of the cult of Osiris, Sesostris III, Amosis I and Sethos I built cenotaphs, and countless private persons erected stelae, on its sacred territory. It is indeed not illogical to suppose that the early kings chose Abydos as the site for the cenotaphs for the very reason which led to the transference of the dead Osiris from his home in the Delta to Abydos.

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