By Thomas Ertman
For a few years students have sought to provide an explanation for why the ecu states that emerged within the interval sooner than the French Revolution built alongside such diversified strains. Why did a few states turn into absolutist and others constitutionalist? What enabled a few to improve bureaucratic administrative structures, whereas others remained established upon patrimonial practices?
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Additional info for Birth of the Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
The resulting struggle between royal officials and England's national representative assembly over the character of the growing administrative and financial infrastructure continued intermittently for over three and a half centuries. The importance of Parliament in countering tendencies towards the appropriation of office became clear during the late 1400s and 1500s when the decline of that body in the wake of England's military disengagement from the continent, combined with the replacement of clerics by laymen in many government positions, led to the consolidation and spread of proprietary officeholding.
120-139. , pp. , pp. , pp. 140-185. Only the last of these is contained in the Gilbert volume (pp. ), Rethinking Leviathan: The British and German States of the Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming). , he did not mean to claim that all of the real world assemblies which he assigned to the first category actually possessed two chambers. In fact, as Hintze explicitly states, the division into two chambers was a later development that never came to pass in either Scotland or in medieval Sweden and Denmark.
50 At the same time, states that were not affected by geopolitical competition - and hence did not initiate a similar set of structural changes until after about 1450 (late statebuilders) - possessed the advantage of being able to adopt the latest techniques of administration and finance. Second, and even more importantly, the supply of expert personnel - administrators and those with financial and military expertise expanded greatly in the period after 1450 as a result of the proliferation of medieval universities, the growth of commercial and financial markets, and changes in military technology.