By Giancarlo Lancini, Rolando Lorenzetti (auth.)
In reaction to the field's want for an introductory textual content, the authors have distilled the colossal and scattered literature when it comes to the biotechnology of microbial secondary metabolites. basic biology, biosynthesis, the hunt for novel metabolites, and methods for pressure development are all mentioned to supply undergraduate and graduate scholars with a concise, readable review of the field.
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16), used in the therapy of gram-positive infection, isolated as a complex of five components from A. teichomyceticus cultures. 16. Teichomycin T-A2-2, the major component ofteicoplanin. BIOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC-PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS 55 Actinoplanes ATCC 33076. Other products of interest are the pleuracins, mixtures of macrocyclic lactones and depsipeptides, closely related to the virginiamycin group, isolated from A. auranticolor and A. azureus; lipiarmycin, an unusual macrolide inhibitor of RNA polymerase produced by A.
One component of this last family, avermectin B1 (Fig. 10), is used as the starting material for the production of ivermectin, a semisynthetic derivative widely used in veterinary practice. 4. Peptides Peptide antibiotics are normally generated in streptomycetes by the so-called thiotemplate multienzyme mechanism. The great variety of metabolites produced are related to the variety of building blocks and to extensive postassembly modifications of the original chain. To the variety of structures corresponds a variety of biological activities, some of which are of practical importance.
The stages of development of streptomycetes growing in submerged cultures are not clearly defined. However, it is well known that many secondary metabolites are produced only at the end of vegetative growth, at a stage corresponding to the formation of aerial mycelium. Moreover, in some uncommon cases the formation of spores has been observed also in submerged cultures, indicating some similarity with the life cycle on solid substrates. 3. Physiology and Metabolism Streptomycetes are obligate aerobes, chemoorganotrophs that need only an organic carbon source (such as glucose, starch, glycerol), an 32 CHAPTER 2 inorganic nitrogen source, and a few mineral salts for growth.