By Y.C. Fung
The thought of blood circulate is the oldest and such a lot complex department of biomechanics, with roots extending again to Huangti and Aristotle, and with contributions from Galileo, Santori, Descartes, Borelli, Harvey, Euler, Hales, Poiseuille, Helmholtz, and so on. It represents a tremendous a part of humanity's notion of itself. This booklet offers chosen themes of this nice physique of rules from a old point of view, binding vital experiments including mathematical threads. The ambitions and scope of this booklet stay kind of like within the first variation: to give a therapy of circulatory biomechanics from the stand issues of engineering, body structure, and clinical technological know-how, and to boost the topic via a series of difficulties and examples. The identify is modified from Biodynamics: movement to Biomechanics: movement to unify the booklet with its sister volumes, Biomechanics: Mechanical houses of residing Tissues, and Biomechanics: movement, circulate, pressure, and development. the most important alterations made within the re-creation are the next: while the 1st version went to press in 1984, the query of residual rigidity within the center was once raised for the 1st time, and the lung used to be the single organ analyzed at the foundation of reliable morphologic facts and constitutive equations. The precise research of blood stream within the lung were performed, however the physiological validation experiments had now not but been completed.
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Extra info for Biomechanics: Circulation
The total potential energy of the fluid particles that occupy the volume V instantaneously is G= fv pgh dv, (12) and its rate of change is DG/Dt and can be broken down into four integrals, as in the case of the kinetic energy. Finally, the change of internal energy is due to the generation of heat through viscosity. + duil ax . If J I Hence, the last term, the rate of dissipation of mechanical energy, is given by (13) See Fung (1993, Sec. 8, pp. 220-222) for a rigorous derivation. 11 Energy Balance Equation 19 Summarizing the above, we obtain the following energy equation: I A pu dA- I A 2 pu dA + I S T,:u; dA +heat input 1 = L, ~pq 2 udA- L,~pq 2 udA+ fs~pq 2 uy;dA + r j_ (!
1 .... - -1 -- I 100 10 0 VW L 1HI(KN(55 · \ -•o e ... l9 ·tO J 110 EPICARDIUM ·100 30 2. The Heart The reader might enjoy looking over the beautifully illustrated book by Frank Netter, Heart (1969). Details of the anatomy of the heart can be found in the Handbook of Physiology (Berne and Sperelakis, 1979). A tremendous store of information is in Braunwald (1988). 3 Electric System Since every contraction of the heart muscle needs an electric stimulation, the heart must have a center that generates a periodic electric signal which is conducted to every muscle cell.
The S-A node is a pale, narrow structure. For humans it is approximately 25 mm long, 3 to 4mm wide, and 2mm thick. It contains two types of cells: (a) the small, round P cells, which have few organelles and myofibrils, and (b) the slender, elongated transitional cells, which are intermediate in appearance between the P and the ordinary myocardial cells. The P cells are the dominant pacemaker cells of the heart. They exhibit rhythmicity very early in fetal life. 3:1. The electric system of the heart and the action potentials at various locations in the heart.