By Zoeb Hussian, Zulkifly Abdullah, Zanial Alimuddin
Following a concise assessment of fluid mechanics proficient through a number of engineering purposes and examples, this reference provides and analyzes significant forms of fluid equipment and the foremost sessions of generators, in addition to pump know-how. It bargains execs and scholars in hydraulic engineering with heritage innovations in addition to functional assurance of recent turbine applied sciences, absolutely explaining some great benefits of either steam and gasoline generators. Description, layout, and operational info for the Pelton, Francis, Propeller, and Kaplan generators are supplied, as are outlines of assorted sorts of strength vegetation. It presents solved examples, bankruptcy difficulties, and a radical case study.
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Additional info for Basic Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
The flow in turbomachines deals with energy considerations, angular momentum considerations, centrifugal pump and their characteristics, similarity laws, turbines, axial and rapid flow, impulse and reaction. 3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow The transport of fluid is done in closed conduit commonly called a pipe usually of round cross-section. The flow in pipes is laminar or turbulent; Osborne Reynolds has done experiment in pipe flow. Laminar flow is one where the streamline moves in parallel lines and turbulent flow when streamlines cross each other and the flow is diffused.
7 kPa. 8 kPa. 6 Turbines convert the energy of the fluid into mechanical energy. Turbines are . often used in power plants with generators to produce electricity. One such installation is shown in Fig. 19. A dam is constructed to store water and to produce required head. Water passes through the turbine and goes downstream. Determine power available to the turbine when the flow rate is 30 ml/s. Nozzle 20m -+ . ~ / 7;-/;; ~ 0 CD + + 6 r -- /7777}/);r Fig. 19 Schematic of hydro power plant. L 2g - I where HT = represents head developed by turbine PI = P2 = atmospheric pressure = 0 VI = 0 because of large reservoir.
The surrounding liquid will exert pressure P, from the sides of the clcment. The pressure will be normal to the tube in absence of shear stresses. The weight ofthe element mg will act downward vertically at an angle 0 to the centre line. Mass flow rate Momentum = rAY = mV Rate of initial momentum Rate offinal momentum = = pAY. Y pAY [(Y + 8V)] mg Z + OZ Z Fig. 5 A stream tube. Rate of change of momentum = = pAY [(Y + 8V) -Y)] pAY. oY ..... 13) Consider all the forces acting to produce an increase in momentum in the direction of motion.