By Neal T. Wright & Jaewan Yoon (Editors)
Program of GIS applied sciences in Port amenities and Operations administration discusses the hot advances in GIS (Geographic info platforms) applied sciences for port execs. This committee file identifies potent GIS recommendations for the administration of complicated port and harbor infrastructure and discusses in-depth the functions, necessities, and boundaries of obtainable GIS purposes. It additionally presents helpful GIS database innovations and software program integration counsel, an outline and dialogue of GIS information kinds and map projections, and several other case reviews concentrating on facility and operations administration
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Additional info for Application of GIS Technologies in Port Facilities and Operations Management
Next solve for h and once again for . Continue the iteration until the change in between successive iterations is insignificant. Finally, to convert from Cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z) to local coordinates (e, n, u), use the following formulas: ⎡ e ⎤ ⎡ Ϫsin cos 0 ⎤⎡X⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ n ⎥ ϭ ⎢Ϫsin cos Ϫsin cos cos ⎥ ⎢ Y ⎥ ⎢ u ⎥ ⎢ cos cos cos cos sin ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Z ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ (2-4) APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS 28 In this last conversion, the geodetic coordinates (latitude and longitude) of a point are also required in order to be able to convert the Cartesian coordinates to a local system.
Survey foot and international foot conversions can cause additional errors when dealing with such local datums. Appendix 6 includes brief notes on datum transformations and map projections. However, for detailed exploration of these two topics, some excellent sources include Elithorp and Findorff (2009), Hofmann-Wellenhof et al. (2001), and Van Sickle (2008). GPS Receiver Position Measurement Principle The true range, or geometric range, from a GPS receiver to a GPS satellite can be represented in terms of WGS-84 coordinates (Fig.
Multipath Errors Multipath is the error caused by nearby reflecting surfaces at the receiver location. Just as light reflects off a shiny surface, radio signals can be reflected by solid objects and surfaces. GPS signals cannot penetrate solid objects like buildings, 43 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS 44 Figure 2-16. Amount of sunspots since January 1995, with a forecast up to 2020. Source: NOAA. thick tree canopies, cars, ships, and bridges. Instead, these objects deflect them, causing the signals to arrive at the receiver via multiple paths (Fig.