By Stanley Gunstream
Anatomy and body structure : With built-in research consultant 4TH version via Stanley E. Gunstream. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company,2010
Read or Download Anatomy & Physiology with Integrated Study Guide, Fourth Edition PDF
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Extra info for Anatomy & Physiology with Integrated Study Guide, Fourth Edition
During cell division, the chromosomes coil and shorten and become rod-shaped. Each human body cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, with a total of 46 in all. One or more dense spherical bodies, the nucleoli (n¯u-kl¯e-¯o-l¯e), are also present in the nucleus. A nucleolus consists of RNA and protein and is the site of ribosome production. endoplasmic reticulum (en″-d¯o-plas′-mik r¯e-tik′-¯u-lum), or ER for short. These membranes provide some support for the cytoplasm and form a network of channels that facilitate the movement of materials within the cell.
The reaction of hydrogen and oxygen (reactants) to form water (product) is an example. Synthesis reactions produce complex molecules used in the growth and repair of body parts. Synthesis reactions may be generalized as: Hydrogen bond A ϩ B → AB A decomposition reaction is just the reverse. A complex substance is broken down into simpler substances. For example, water can decompose to form hydrogen and oxygen. Decomposition reactions are used to break down food molecules to form nutrients usable by body cells.
1 Diagram of a carbon atom. The number of protons and electrons are equal, which makes the atom electrically neutral. 3 Atomic Characteristics of the Common Elements in the Body Element Symbol Protons* Neutrons Atomic Weight** Electrons in Valence Shell Hydrogen H 1 0 1 1 Carbon C 6 6 12 4 Nitrogen N 7 7 14 5 Oxygen O 8 8 16 6 Sodium Na 11 12 23 1 Magnesium Mg 12 12 24 2 Phosphorus P 15 16 31 5 Sulfur S 16 16 32 6 Chlorine Cl 17 18 35 7 Potassium K 19 20 39 1 Calcium Ca 20 20 40 2 *Number of protons ϭ number of electrons ϭ atomic number **Isotopes not included.