By Asle Toje
This booklet offers a provocative research of kin among Europe and the US throughout the tempestuous years 1998-2004. Analysing european international coverage, it concludes that the teachings learnt in interacting with the US were the most important in shaping the rising european strategic tradition. The ebook demanding situations confirmed orthodoxy concerning the sui generis nature of the ecu Union. via unique case-studies, it exhibits how the U.S. motivated judgements through the youth of the ecu overseas and safety coverage: throughout the 1999 Kosovo conflict, the ecu and NATO expansion methods, and the 2003 Iraq drawback. even though, the ebook argues that even supposing coverage ends will be lead by means of the U.S., the ecu is growing to be more and more convinced in identifying distinctively ‘European’ potential to accomplish those ambitions. those findings have vital implications for realizing either the european as a international coverage actor and of the EU-US partnership at first of the twenty first century.
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Additional info for America, the EU and Strategic Culture: Transatlantic Security Relations after the Cold War (Contemporary Security Studies)
The EC failed, not for the last time, to tap into the zeitgeist of the period. The 1980s saw attempts at European strategic thinking. Security issues began to appear on the agenda of the EC Foreign Ministers’ meetings, but only political and economic aspects were addressed. The antipathy felt by many towards President Reagan’s confrontational rhetoric did not translate into common European policies. ”35 Relations with members of the Warsaw Pact were an area of frequent transatlantic friction. The European countries generally advocated a softer pressure than that favoured in Washington.
Kennedy sought a greater European contribution to Western defence. 30 It also led to a reappraisal of America’s role in Europe. Diminished prestige of the armed forces in the US led to increased calls for the Europeans to shoulder more of their own security burden. When the Europeans failed to do so, the US increased its reliance on nuclear deterrence in the defence of Europe. NATO’s 1967 Strategic Concept was revamped with the doctrine of a “flexible response” towards a possible Warsaw Pact attack.
Dulles, put it: No more will there be national armies to fight each other and to invade each other in a quest for national triumphs. 17 Dulles was so committed to the idea that he threatened an “agonizing reappraisal” of US policy vis-à-vis Europe should the Europeans fail to agree on a common defence. This was an empty threat. Despite the establishment of the Western European Union (WEU) in 1948, the collapse of the EDC in practical terms meant that Europe would not shoulder a proportionate share of the burden of defending against the USSR.