By N. Simons, B. Menzies, M. Matthews
This new addition to the 'Short path' sequence combines either soil and rock slope engineering - in impact, brief classes - in a single concise quantity. Like its acclaimed spouse quantity a brief path in beginning Engineering, this booklet makes a speciality of the necessities, explaining easy equipment of balance research and utilising them to a variety of useful purposes
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Extra resources for A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering
It is clear that the magnitude of undrained strength anisotropy in clays is much greater than drained strength anisotropy in sands. It can be seen that generally for this type of clay the triaxial compression test indicates a strength intermediate between that indicated by the triaxial extension test and the direct shear box test. 2. 21 strengths intermediate between the triaxial extension and compression tests. Bjerrum (1972) found that using the undrained shear strength measured by the vane in a conventional limit analysis gave varying estimates of the actual stability depending on the plasticity of the clay.
In a ®ne-grained soil like clay, the viscous resistance to pore water expulsion prevents the soil structure from rapidly contracting. In the short term loading condition therefore there is a change in effective stress due to shear strain only together with an increase in pore pressure. With time, this excess pore pressure is dissipated by drainage away from the area of increased pore pressure into the surrounding area of lower pore pressure unaffected by the construction. This ¯ow of pore water causes a time dependent reduction in volume in the zone of in¯uence, the soil consolidating and the soil structure stiffening, giving rise to decreasing settlement and increasing strength.
Accordingly, a 0 analysis must be carried out using the undrained shear strength su . 34 CHAPTER 2 SHORT TERM STABILITY, UNDRAINED STRENGTH OF CLAYS The applicability of the 0 analysis From the principle of effective stress it is known that effective stress (and hence strength) will not change provided the soil structure does not deform. This is the case in the unconsolidated±undrained triaxial test during the cell pressure increment stages which are isotropic. The combination of the undrained condition (no volumetric strain) and the isotropic stress change (no shear strain) ensures no deformation and hence no change in the initial state of effective stress.