By Johanna. R Bruckner
In this thesis Johanna Bruckner stories the invention of the lyotropic counterpart of the thermotropic SmC* part, which has develop into recognized because the basically spontaneously polarized, ferroelectric fluid in nature. through polarizing optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electro-optic experiments she firmly establishes elements of the constitution of the unconventional lyotropic liquid crystalline part and elucidates its attention-grabbing houses, between them a said polar electro-optic influence, analogous to the ferroelectric switching of its thermotropic counterpart. The helical flooring nation of the mesophase increases the elemental query of the way chiral interactions are "communicated" throughout layers of kind of disordered and achiral solvent molecules that are positioned among adjoining bi-layers of the chiral amphiphile molecules. This thesis bridges a huge hole among thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals and pioneers a brand new box of liquid crystal research.
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Extra info for A First Example of a Lyotropic Smectic C* Analog Phase: Design, Properties and Chirality Effects
They look similar to the micelles shown in Fig. 1, but instead of the alkyl chains, the hydrophilic head groups are located in the centers of the micelles. g. rods or discs. However, in the case of thermotropics, the mesogens are single molecules, while in lyotropics they are micelles which form due to the hydrophobic effect. Even though the driving forces for the formation of the two types of mesophases are rather different, it is not astonishing that analog phases emerge quite often, in view of the similar symmetry and shapes of the mesogens.
Möller-Goymann, in Lyotrope Flüssigkristalle: Grundlagen, Entwicklungen, Anwendungen, ed. by H. Stegemeyer (Steinkopfverlag, Darmstadt, 1999) 15. T. Hyde, in Identiﬁcation of Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Mesophases, ed. by K. O. J. Schwuger. Handbook of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, vol 2 (Wiley, West Sussex, 2002) 16. Y. Kosaka, T. Kato, T. Uryu, Liq. Cryst. 18(5), 693–698 (1995) 17. S. W. T. R. J. M. Seddon, L. Taylor, Liq. Cryst. 16(4), 529–581 (1994) 18. L. McMillan, Phys. Rev. A 4(3), 1238–1246 (1971) 28 3 Thermotropic and Lyotropic Liquid Crystals 19.
If the surfactant molecules are interdigitated to some degree, the term ‘partial bilayer’ is used. The second part of the lamella is a layer of solvent molecules, in which the molecules are believed to solely possess a fluid-like order. The solvent layers separate the surfactant bilayers from each other and should thus inhibit the transfer of information from one surfactant layer to the next. Consequently, the lamellar Lα phase is the only fluid, Fig. 2 Survey of Important Mesophases 21 layered mesophase in lyotropics, which is commonly observed and accepted.